覚えやすい英会話レッスン(無料)

Pattern Practice 6-10

Bananas

 

 

A bunch of bananas

 

 

学校英語では「何々しなければならない」を “must” と言う表現でならいました。

 

実際の会話では、”have to” とか “need to” を使い、余程強調したい時でなければ “must” を使いません。とりわけ疑問文で使うことは少ないです。

 

“have to” と “need to” の違いは?となると、やはり “have to” の方が、必要にせまられた感じです。勿論 使う人の口癖にもよりますけれど。

 

日本語でも、私たちは言葉の選び方が個人個人で違いますね。英語の場合もそうです。

 

Pattern Practice (6)

 

Basic sentences:
1. I have to buy some groceries.
2. Emma has to go to the dentist’s.
3. Mike has to mow the lawn. (芝刈り)
4. Lily has to do the laundry.
5. Bill has to get a haircut.

 

Y/N questions:
1. Do you have to buy some groceries?

(Yes, I do.)

2. Does Emma have to go to the dentist’s?
(Yes, she does.)

3. Does Mike have to mow the lawn?
(Yes, he does.)

4. Does Lily have to do the laundry?
(Yes, she does.)

5. Does Bill have to get a haircut?
(Yes, he does.)

 

Who questions:
1. Who has to buy some groceries?

(I do.)

2. Who has to go to the dentist’s?
(Emma does.)

3. Who has to go to mow the lawn?
(Mike does.)

4. Who has to do the laundry?
(Lily does.)

5. Who has to get a haircut?
(Bill does.)

 

What questions:
1. What do you have to do?

(Buy some groceries.)

2. What does Emma have to do?
(Go to the dentist’s.)

3. What does Mike have to do?
(Mow the lawn.)

4. What does Lily have to do?
(Do the laundry.)

5. What does Bill have to do?
(Get a haircut.)

 

ではここで “need to” に変えてみましょう。

 

Basic sentences:
1. I need to buy some groceries.
2. Emma need to go to the dentist’s.
3. Mike needs to mow the lawn.
4. Lily needs to do the laundry.
5. Bill needs to get a haircut.

 

Y/N questions:
1. Do you need to buy some groceries?

(Yes, I do.)

2. Does Emma need to go to the dentist’s?
(Yes, she does.)

3. Does Mike need to mow the lawn?
(Yes, he does.)

4. Does Lily need to do the laundry?
(Yes, she does.)

5. Does Bill need to get a haircut?
(Yes, he does.)

 

Who questions:
1. Who needs to buy some groceries?

(I do.)

2. Who needs to go to the dentist’s?
(Emma does.)

3. Who needs to mow the lawn?
(Mike does.)

4. Who needs to do the laundry?
(Lily does.)

5. Who needs to get a haircut?
(Bill does.)

 

What questions:
1. What do you need to do?

(Buy some groceries.)

2. What does Emma need to do?
(Go to the dentist’s.)

3. What does Mike need to do?
(Mow the lawn.)

4. What does Lily need to do?
(Do the laundry.)

5. What does Bill need to do?
(Get a haircut.)

 

 

 

Pattern Practice (7)

 

Basic sentences:
1. I had to stay home yesterday.
2. Emma had to go to the hospital this morning.
3. Mike had to write an essay last night.
4. Lily had to buy a new washing machine last week.
5. Bill had to renew his driver’s license last month.

 

Y/N questions:
1. Did you have to stay home yesterday?

(Yes, I did.)

2. Did Emma have to go to the hospital this morning?
(Yes, she did.)

3. Did Mike have to write an essay last night?
(Yes, he did.)

4. Did Lily have to buy a new washing machine last week?
(Yes, she did.)

5. Did Bill have to renew his driver’s license last month?
(Yes, he did.)

 

Who questions:
1. Who had to stay home yesterday?

(I did.)

2. Who had to go to the hospital this morning?
(Emma did.)

3. Who had to write an essay last night?
(Mike did.)

4. Who had to buy a new washing machine last week?
(Lily did.)

5. Who had to renew their driver license last month?
(Bill did.)

 

What questions:
1. What did you have to do yesterday?

(I had to stay home.)

2. What did Emma have to do this morning?
(She had to go to the hospital.)

3. What did Mike have to do last night?
(He had to write an essay.)

4. What did Lily have to do last week?
(She had to buy a new washing machine.)

5. What did Bill have to do last month?
(He had to renew his driver’s license.)

 

When questions:
1. When did you have to stay home?

(Yesterday.)

2. When did Emma have to go to the hospital?
(This morning.)

3. When did Mike have to write an essay?
(Last night.)

4. When did Lily have to buy a new washing machine?
(Last week.)

5. When did Bill have to renew his driver’s license?
(Last month.)

 

 

それでは以上の例文を “needed to” に置換えてみましょう。

 

Basic sentences:
1. I needed to stay home yesterday.
2. Emma needed to go to the hospital this morning.
3. Mike needed to write an essay last night.
4. Lily needed to buy a new washing machine last week.
5. Bill needed to renew his driver’s license last month.

 

Q & A はご自分でお出来になりますね。

 

 

 

文章のイメージをお忘れなく。これから先の話をする時、日本語では現在形の動詞を使い、時の指定で未来を現しますね。
例えば、「明日、どこそこに行きます」「今夜、なになにをします」などの様に。

 

学校英語では将来形は “will” 又は “shall” を使うなどと教わりました。
でも実は “shall” は稀にしか使いませんし、”will” は “I” 又は “You” が主語の場合は意図をあらわす時に使います。3人称が主語の場合は、話している人の予測が入ります。例えば、“I think he’ll come.” とか “It’ll happen.” と言っている人の予測ですね。

 

ふつうに「何々するでしょう」という意味での未来形は “be going to” が使われています。

 

そこで先ずは “be going to” の練習を致しましょう。

 

Pattern Practice (8)

 

Basic sentences:
1. I’m going to buy a new TV this afternoon.
2. Emma is going to meet her friends tonight.
3. Mike is going to go to New York tomorrow.
4. Lily is going to plant some flowers this weekend.
5. Bill is going to have a party next week.

 

Y/N questions:
1. Are you going to buy a new TV this afternoon?

(Yes, I am.)

2. Is Emma going to meet her friends tonight?
(Yes, she is.)

3. Is Mike going to go to New York tomorrow?
(Yes, he is.)

4. Is Lily going to plant some flowers this weekend?
(Yes, she is.)

5. Is Bill going to have a party next week?
(Yes, he is.)

 

Who questions:
1. Who’s going to buy a new TV this afternoon?

(I am.)

2. Who’s going to meet their friends tonight?
(Emma is.)

3. Who’s going to go to New York tomorrow?
(Mike is.)

4. Who’s going to plant some flowers this weekend?
(Lily is.)

5. Who’s going to have a party next week?
(Bill is.)

 

Other questions:
1. What are you going to buy this afternoon?

(A new TV.)

2. Who is Emma going to meet tonight?
(Her friends.)

3. Where is Mike going to go tomorrow?
(To New York.)

4. What is Lily going to do this weekend?
(Plant some flowers.)

5. What is Bill going to do next week?
(Have a party.)

 

Will questions:
1. (Bill asks me) Will you come to my party?

(I answer) Yes, I certainly will.

2. (Lily asks me) Will Emma help me plant flowers?
(I answer) I’m sure she will.

3. (Bill asks me) Will Lily come to my party?
( I answer) I think she will.

4. (I ask Mike) Will you help me choose a new TV?
(Mike answers) Yes, I will.

5. (Emma asks Lily) Will you join me and my friends tonight?
(Lily answers) I sure will.

 

 

 

「あの時、何をしていたの?」という過去の進行形を使うことがありますね。

 

Pattern Practice (9)

 

Basic sentences:
1. I was cleaning the house when the phone rang.
2. Emma was brushing her teeth when I called her.
3. Mike was washing his car when it started to rain.
4. Lily was talking on the phone when the doorbell rang.
5. Bill was sleeping when the alarm went off.

 

Y/N questions:
1. Were you cleaning the house when the phone rang?

(Yes, I was.)

2. Was Emma brushing her teeth when you called her?
(Yes, she was.)

3. Was Mike washing his car when it started to rain?
(Yes, he was.)

4. Was Lily talking on the phone when the doorbell rang?
(Yes, she was.)

5. Was Bill sleeping when the alarm went off?
(Yes, he was.)

 

What questions:
1. What were you doing when the phone rang?

(I was cleaning the house.)

2. What was Emma doing when you called her?
(She was brushing her teeth.)

3. What was Mike doing when it started to rain?
(He was washing his car.)

4. What was Lily doing when the doorbell rang?
(She was talking on the phone.)

5. What was Bill doing when the alarm went off?
(He was sleeping.)

 

Some more questions:
1. What were you doing when the big earthquake happened?

(I was in my room reading.)

 

2. What were you doing when the fire broke out next door?

(I was already in bed, but not asleep yet.)

 

3 What were you doing when the big typhoon hit this area?

(It was my day off fortunately, and I was home.)

 

 

 

ずっとやってきたことを表現しましょう。

 

Pattern Practice (10)

 

Basic sentences:
1. I’ve been coming to this store since I was little. (小さい頃から)
2. Emma has been living with her parents all her life. (これまでずっと)
3. Mike has been teaching English since he graduated. (卒業してから)
4. Lily has been cleaning her house all morning. (午前中ずっと)
5. Bill has been working on his car the whole day. (一日中)

 

Y/N questions:
1. Have you been coming to this store since you were little?

(Yes, I have.)

2. Has Emma been living with her parents all her life?
(Yes, she has.)

3. Has Mike been teaching English since he graduated?
(Yes, he has.)

4. Has Lily been cleaning her house all morning?
(Yes, she has.)

5. Has Bill been working on his car the whole day?

(Yes, he has.)

 

Who questions:
1. Who’s been coming to this store since they were little?

(I have.)

2. Who’s been living with their parents all their life?

(Emma has.)

3. Who’s been teaching English since they graduated?

(Mike has.)

4. Who’s been cleaning their house all morning?

(Lily has.)

5. Who’s been working on their car the whole day?
       

(Bill has.)

 

How long questions:
1. How long have you been coming to this store?

(Since I was little.)

2. How long has Emma been living with her parents?

(All her life.)

3. How long has Mike been teaching English?

(Since he graduated.)

4. How long has Lily been cleaning her house?

(All morning.)

5. How long has Bill been working on his car?

(The whole day.)

 

 

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